Friday, November 15, 2019

Review of Don Quixote by Miguel de Cervantes

Review of Don Quixote by Miguel de Cervantes With the exceptions of Dorotea and Zoraida, the women in the First Part of Don Quixote are weak-willed, subservient creatures who rely on their husbands as masters. However, even Dorotea ingratiates and humiliates herself in order to win back Fernandos affection. Zoraida, on the other hand, at first stands out as the one seeming exception to this model, since she has the will to steal from her father in order to run away from home with the captive. Zoraida, or Maria if you prefer, is a female figure who is half Moor (the body) and half Christian (the soul) and enters into self-imposed exile from her home culture in order to actualize a hidden and purportedly European self (Garrett 141). Zoraida abandons her father on a deserted island in the process of actualizing her quest for the Christian world (Garrett 141). As a Moor, she can step outside the bounds of the conventional roles governing the lives of Cervantess women. However, Zoraida speaks only once, and then it is in animated revision of her name: No, Zoraida no: Maria, Maria! (Cervantes 353). Renamed Maria, Zoraidas Moorish identity would be replaced by a Christian ideal of feminine chastity, but her muteness symbolizes her lack of power. Therefore, even though her ethnicity and religious passion make her unusual and suggest that she might serve as the model for a new kind of woman in the novel, she remains as much an object as the other female characters. The Captives Tale highlights a womans role in modern Spain. From the first, Zoraida is represented as an object unable to demonstrate a sense of self. In contrast to the captive, who actively interacts with the inns guests and defines himself as part of their community, Zoraida is passive and mute and distanced. She becomes visible to her new companions only after the captive translates for her for a specifically Christian audience. The success of Zoraidas cross-cultural journey depends on the captive. (Garrett 142) Zoraida enters Cervantes text as a literal representation of a romantic damsel-in-distress. Her arrival follows Doroteas impersonation of Princess Micomicona, an imaginary construct devised by the priest and the barber to put an end to Don Quixotes misadventures (Garrett 142). A once great lady, the princess is said to require a knights service to restore her and her family from the tyrannous hold of an overgrown giant (Cervantes 274). In an interesting parallel, Zoraida, having become herself a reduced and vulnerable woman, provides a real-life mirror to the princess. A willing expatriate from her home culture, Zoraida enters the story after having been relieved by pirates of her bangles, pearls, and rubies, and appearing a materially impoverished Christian convert (Garrett 142). Her freedom depended on betrayal, and after that betrayal she lost her economic and discursive power. In the end, all that she retains is her allure as a Muslim woman seeking a new homeland. Where the imaginary Micomicona is protected by the madly romantic Don Quixote, Zoraida is protected by the Christian captive. Together, Zoraida and the captive arrive at the inn as realistic figures of a modern Christian knight and his chastely silent lady. Zoraida represents the potential for womens centrality at the same time she reveals the limits of womens access to power. Both in terms of economics and discourse, she is contained after offering herself up for exchange. In Cervantes and the Material World, Carroll Johnson suggests that Zoraida journeys from linguistic and economic empowerment in protocapitalistic Algiers to voicelessness and poverty in feudo-agrarian Spain, where the old order triumphs and Zoraida is promised, at best, a position as a second-class morisca citizen (126). Cervantes used masculinist literary models to shape his novel, but he engaged in an entirely new kind of literary activity that reached out to a growing reading population by positioning Zoraida at the center of the discussion of race, class, and difference in early modern Spain (Vollendorf 322). Zoraida cannot upset any genre, for hers is the quintessential historical narrative of conversion, displacement, and silence.

Wednesday, November 13, 2019

Sympathy for PIP :: essays research papers

Great Expectations Dickens’ gripping novel of 1861, Great Expectations, portrays his distinguishing tendency to exaggerate both plot and characters. Chapter eight enhances his main aim of initiating sympathy for Pip, and this, consequently, lasts for the novel’s entirety. We are shown similarities between Dickens’ early childhood memories and the protagonist’s inability to defend himself against the injustices he discovers throughout the early years of life. Dickens successfully creates a sympathetic mood through a range of techniques, including an exquisite use of emotive dialogue, sophisticated imagery and symbolism. He explores and brings originality to timeless themes such as fear, loneliness, luck, classism, social justice, humiliation, and humor, which is cleverly incorporated into his writing for the first time to bring an uplifting mood to an otherwise dark and disturbing tone. His use of Miss Havisham and Estella as tools to evoke sympathy and casting the central character as the narrative voice increases compassion and creates a dramatic attitude. In this essay, I will also examine the opening and ending of the chapter, which contribute to its overall effect. Opening and Ending of the chapter After the initial detailed account of Pumblechook and his home, we are immediately endeared to Pip and express sympathy when he begins to depict the low ceiling of his attic space. Our sympathy is again increased and contained throughout the entire chapter – from the humorous torment of Pumblechook’s sums to meeting the somewhat frightening Miss Havisham and stepping inside her lonely, dilapidated abode. Pip’s already dire situation is once again worsened by Estella and Miss Havisham’s cruel and menacing comments about the situation in which he finds himself. They arouse our consideration through the way in which they interact, both with each other and with Pip, making him feel ‘much more ignorant’ than he had considered himself the previous night. His growing obsession with Estella and her view upon him drags down his self-esteem to an all time low and consequently builds our sympathy towards him. It is here that his feeling of despair and worthlessness present him with the new target of becoming a gentleman, so far from his status at that present time. Social Class Great Expectations frequently refers us to the present class system of a post-Industrial Revolution Victorian England. The theme of social underlines the book’s overall plot and moral theme that loyalty and conscience are worth more than social advancement, wealth and class. During the 19th century, there were vast differences in social class. Although it was incredibly easy to slip down the social ladder, the poor often resorted to begging or stealing in order to

Sunday, November 10, 2019

The Insurable Interest Doctrine- Indian Perspective

DR. RAM MANOHAR LOHIYA NATIONAL LAW UNIVERSITY ______________________________________________________________________________ The Insurable Interest Doctrine __________________________________________________________________ Name: Sukriti Guha Roll No. : 142 Semester: VIIIth Class: B. A. , LL. B. (Hons. ) Subject: Insurance Law Submitted to: Ms.Aparna Singh TABLE OF CONTENTS I. Introduction II. Can there be any valid insurance agreement without insurable interest? III. Creation of insurable interest IV. Wager and insurance V. Types of insurable interest VI. Time or duration of insurable interest VII. Insurable interest vis-a-vis life insurance contract VIII. Insurable interest vis-a-vis marine insurance contract IX. Insurable interest vis-a-vis fire insurance contract X. Conclusion Bibliography I. INTRODUCTION The aim of insurance is to shift risk from one person (the insured) to another (the insurers).In insurance contract as a matter of public policy, certain insurable require ments must be met, to make it valid. Insurable interest is one of the basic requirements of the insurance. Without it the insurance contract is a mere wagering agreement. In India it is strange that the Insurance Act 1938 does not contain a definition of insurable interest. The only section, namely section 68, which makes a passing reference to the words ‘insurable interest’ stands repeated by section 48 of The Insurance Amendment Act 1950.Briefly stated there is no legislative guidance in Indian law on the subject but still marine insurance defines under section 7 of the marine insurance act 1963 defines insurable interest. Insurable interest is also defined as a legal right to insure an asset or person. In theory, therefore, nothing more is payable than the amount of actual loss. It follows that unless the assured has a pecuniary interest in the thing insured, no question of loss or indemnity shall arise. A person cannot therefore insure a thing, the loss of which can not cause him any financial loss.A policy of insurance, therefore, is void if the insured has no such pecuniary interest in the subject matter of the insurance. Any person, who would suffer from destruction or loss of a thing, has insurable interest in that thing. The insurable interest must: * Be definite * Be capable of valuation * Be legally valid and subsisting * Involve the loss of legal right * Involve a legal liability II. CAN THERE BE ANY VALID INSURANCE AGREEMENT WITHOUT INSURABLE INTEREST? The existence of insurable interest is an essential ingredient of any insurance contract. It is an important and fundamental principle of insurance.It can be defined as the legal right to insure arising out of a financial relationship recognized under law, between the insured and the subject matter of insurance We find that the meaning of the term insurable interest is liberally interpreted. It is not always the legal interest or a full interest that's required by the courts but it shoul d be such that it would be sufficient if it is recognized by court of law or equity as such interest. The following points may be gathered: 1) The interest should not be a mere sentimental right or interest, for example love and affection alone cannot constitute insurable interest. ) It should be a right in property or a right arising out of a contract in relation to the property. 3) The interest must be pecuniary that is, capable of estimation in terms of money. In other words, the peril must be such that its happening may bring upon the insured an actual or deemed pecuniary loss. Mere disadvantage or inconvenience or mental distress cannot be regarded as an insurable interest but this rule not strictly followed in life insurance cases. 4) The interest must be lawful, that is, it should not be illegal, unlawful, and immoral or opposed to public policy and does not harm any others legal justified claim.In the case of Brahma Dutt v. LIC, one Mukhtar Singh a petty school teacher on sa lary of Rs 20 took a policy for Rs 35,000 on his life making false statements in the proposal and nominated a stranger Brahma Dutt for the policy. The nominee paid the first two quarterly premiums by which time the life insured died. The nominee intimated the insured's death and claimed the sum assured. It was found on evidence that Brahma Dutt had taken the policy without any insurable interest in the life of the deceased for his own benefit and that therefore it was void being a wagering agreement.The Supreme Court in the case of Suraj Mal Ram Niwas Oil Mills (Private) Limited v United India Insurance Company Limited held that the objection of the insurer about the non-disclosure of dispatch of each and every consignment, as pointed by the second surveyor, learned counsel submitted that the said condition has to be understood in the context of the fundamental condition that the insurance cover was intended to secure only the â€Å"insurable interest† of the appellant in the dispatches.It was urged that the appellant had declared only those consignments in which they had an â€Å"insurable interest† as in relation to dispatches which had not been declared, the consignees had desired that their consignments should be dispatched without an insurance cover. In all such cases, the purchasers took the risk of loss to their goods, and hence the appellant had no â€Å"insurable interest† in them, unlike in the consignment in question for which due declaration was made. Reference was made to the decisions of this Court in New India Assurance Co. Ltd v. G. N. Sainani, and New India Assurance Company Limited v.Hira Lal Ramesh Chand , wherein it was held that â€Å"insurable interest† over a property is â€Å"such interest as shall make the loss of the property to cause pecuniary damage to the assured and under this case it will make a damage to the interest of the insured. III. CREATION OF INSURABLE INTEREST There are a number of ways in wh ich insurable interest will arise or can be created. Few main ways are: 1) By Contract -In some contracts a person will agree to be liable for something, which he or she would not ordinarily be liable for. A landlord is normally liable for the maintenance of property he owns rather than the tenants.A lease may, however, make the tenant responsible for the maintenance, repair etc. of the building. Such a contract places the tenant in legally recognized relationship to the building. This gives him an insurable interest, which would not be present if the contract had not been entered into so these kinds of special contractual relationships give arise to the insurable interest on something on which otherwise one does not have any kind of insurable interest. 2) By Common Law – Where the essential elements of insurable interest are automatically present, the same can be described as having arisen at common law.The most straight forward example is ownership. One can own a house, and there is therefore entitlement to insure it equally the common law duty of care which one owes to the other, may give rise to a liability which again is insurable. Like the use or driving of a motor vehicle in a public place is sufficient insurable interest for the purpose of effecting insurance in the favour of the third party. 3) By Statute – Some time an act of parliament will create an insurable interest either by granting some benefit or imposing a duty.While the statute may create insurable interest where none would otherwise exist. There can be some statutes which can restrict liability and thereby also restrict insurable interest. IV. WAGER AND INSURANCE In a contract of wager all the parties do not have any interest in the happening of the event other than the sum. This is what marks the difference between a wagering agreement and a contract of insurance because every contract of insurance requires for its validity the insurable interest. Insurance affected without insurable interest is no more than a wagering agreement and therefore void.Insurable interest means the risk of loss to which the assured is likely to be exposed by the happening of the event assured against. In a wager on the other hand neither party is running any risk of loss except that which is created by the agreement between two or more than two parties. We all also know that wagering is illegal in India and against to the norms of society or in short wagering is against public policy and distinction between a insurance and a wager is this a insurance is properly speaking a contract to indemnify the insured in respect of some interest which he has against perils which he contemplates it will be liable to.In the case of Alamani v. Positive Govt Security Life Insurance Co. , the plaintiff’s husband took a policy of insurance on the life of Mehbub Bi, the wife of a clerk working under him and about a week later got the policy assigned in the favour of the plaintiff, Mehbu b Bi died a month later and the plaintiff as assignee claimed the sum assured and in this case court find that there was no insurable interest present in this case and hence this insurance contract held to be contract of wager and held to be void.V. TYPES OF INSURABLE INTEREST There are basically two types of insurable interest (1) Contractual (2) Statutory. As we have seen in some cases that interest in the subject matter of insurance is required by law itself for the validity of the policy, whether by express statutory law as in the Marine Insurance Act 1906 or as by section 30 of the Indian Contract Act which merely declares that all contracts by way of wager is void. This is the interest required by statue r the statutory shareholder. If this agent is absent, the insurance is illegal or void and no agreement between the parties dispensing with this requirement can be effective. In an action upon such a contract if the insurer does not raise the plea of want of interest neverthel ess the court of its own motion may refuse to enforce the contract. Courts however, lean in favour of the existence of a valid interest as far as possible, so as to render the contract enforceable.It has also been held in some cases that there is nothing illegal about the insurer paying on policy without interest as the objection or want of insurable interest is purely technical and has no real merit as between the insurer and the insured. Let's take a case law in detail that will clear the picture of the difference between these two kinds of insurable interest. In the case Macaura v. Northern Assurance Company, one Macaura insured timber in his estate against fire. He sold timber to a company of which he was the sole substantial shareholder.Thereafter most of the timber was destroyed by fire and he demanded that he should be indemnified. The insurer succeeded in refusing to comply with the demand. The insured had no statutory interest in the assets of the company though too he woul d suffer loss on the company losing its property, nor he had any contractual interest under the policy because he could not prove interest at the time of the loss. Though the insured had no statutory interest the policy was held to be not a wagering contract because even being the sole shareholder he had an interest or better call insurable interest in the property.VI. TIME OR DURATION OF INSURABLE INTEREST The time when the insurable interest must be present varies with the nature of the insurance contracts. The question is whether insurable interest should exist at the time when the contract is formed or should it also continue to exist until it is discharged but as we have seen in life insurance the presence of insurable interest is necessary at the commencement of the policy although it is not necessary afterwards, not even at the time of occurrence of risk.So it should be there in life policies at the time of taking the policy it need not exist at the time when the loss takes p lace or even when the claim is made under the policy. Life insurance contracts are not strictly speaking contracts of indemnity. In fire insurance, it's required both at the commencement of the policy and at the time when the risk occurs. In a sense, therefore it may be said that insurable interest is doubly insisted upon in fire insurance.The insurance interest is necessary at both the times because it is treated as a personal contract and also a contract of indemnity. And even the onus that the fire was intentional is on the insurer and not the insured. In a marine insurance contract the presence of insurable interest is necessary only at the time of the loss. It is immaterial whether he has or does not have any insurable interest at the time when the marine insurance policy was taken. VII.INSURABLE INTEREST vis-a-vis LIFE INSURANCE CONTRACT Life insurance contract is not a contract of indemnity and a person affecting a policy must have an insurable interest in the life to be assu red. In the life insurance policy persons having relationship by marriage (example, husband and wife), blood (example, father and son) or adoption (example, adopted son and his mother), have been recognized as having insurable interest. Few examples of relationship which have insurable interest in the life of other: * Child has the insurable interest in life of parents and vice versa even the illegitimate child. Wife has an insurable interest in the life of husband and vice versa * Debtor has an insurable interest of the life of creditor and vice versa * Master has an insurable interest in the life of servant and vice versa * A company has an insurable interest in the life of manager or director or partners or other employees and vice versa * Husband or wife have a insurable interest in the life of father-in- law or mother in law and vice versa * Insurable interest in the life of grandparents and vice versa * Insurable interest of a person on his own lifeInsurable interest in India need not be confined to a pecuniary interest. Sentimental interest or an interest based on close family relationship may constitute a sufficient insurable interest. The closeness of relationship operates as a protection to the life of the insured and does not place him in the danger of being murdered. But when a person seeks insurance on his own life, the question of insurable interest is immaterial. There can also be no element of wagering, for whatever gain may accrue, will be by his death and that is no gain.No man will gamble on his own life to gain a pyrrhic victory. And if somebody commits suicide to get the benefit of claim for his beneficiary or relatives his claim will not be entertained. VIII. INSURABLE INTEREST VIS-A-VIS MARINE INSURANCE CONTRACT Insurable interest is a special requirement of the marine insurance contract and any valid contract of marine insurance can be entered onto by person only if he has insurable interest in the marine adventure. And what is importan t for insurable interest is that: ) There should be a physical object which is exposed to the marine perils 2) The assured must have some legally recognized relationship with that object in consequences of which he benefits by its preservation and is prejudiced by its loss or damage. Few instances which show insurable interest in a marine insurance policy: 1) The insurer under a contract of marine insurance has an insurable interest in his risk which he may re-insure. 2) The lender of money on bottomry or respondentia has an insurable interest in respect of loan . ) The masters of the crew of a ship have insurable interest in their wages. IX. INSURABLE INTEREST vis-a-vis FIRE INSURANCE CONTRACT Few instances of persons who can have insurable interest in any insured property by fire: 1) Owner of the property , joint owner, sole owner, or a farm owning the property 2) Lessor and lessee both have insurable interest on any property 3) The vendor or the purchaser both have the right 4) T he mortgagor and mortgagee 5) Trustees are legal owners and beneficiaries the beneficial owner of the trust property and each can insure it. ) Bailees such as carriers, pawnbrokers or warehouse men are responsible for the safety of the property entrusted in them and so can insure it. X. CONCLUSION To be legally enforceable, all insurance contracts must be supported by an insurable interest. Insurance contracts must be supported by an insurable interest for the following reasons. * To prevent gambling: Insurable interest is necessary to prevent gambling. If insurable interest is not required, the contract would be gambling contract and would be against public interest. For example you can insure the property of another and hope for an early loss.You can similarly insure the life of another person and hope for an early death. These contracts would be gambling contracts and would be against public interest and public policy and so need to be checked and stopped. * To reduce moral hazar d: Insurable interest reduces moral hazard. If insurable interest is not required, a dishonest person could purchase a property's insurance belonging to someone else and then deliberately cause a loss to receive the proceeds; but if the insured stands to lose financially, nothing is gained by causing the loss.Thus moral hazard is reduced. In life insurance, insurable interest requirement reduces the incentive to murder the insured for the purpose of collecting policy claim or anyone can set fire his home to claim the fire insurance claim or one can kill any third person insured by him. * To measure the amount of the insured's loss in property insured: Finally in property insurance insurable interest measures the amount of the insured's loss. Most of the property insurance is contracts of indemnity and the measure of recovery is the insurable interest of the insured.In the event of loss, payment cannot exceed the amount of one's insurable interest as the principle of indemnity shall apply. The object of insurance in such a case is to indemnify the assured to the extent of the commercial value of the thing lost. It follows that unless the assured has a pecuniary interest in the thing insured, no question of loss or indemnity shall arise. A person cannot therefore, insure a thing, the loss of which cannot cause him any financial loss.A policy of insurance therefore is void if the insured has no such pecuniary interest in the subject matter of insurance. Any person who would suffer from the destruction of loss of a thing has insurable interest in that thing. Therefore, we can conclude that an insurable interest is essential for making any insurance agreement a legally binding insurance contract. BIBLIOGRAPHY 1. Emmett J. Vaughan & Therese Vaughan, Fundamentals of Risk and Insurance (9th Edn. 2003) 2. Dr. Rakesh Agarwal (Ed. , Guide to Practice of General Insurance (Paper No. 11 of I. I. I. ) (Key for Licentiate Examination), (2nd edition, 2011) 3. Centre of Public ations, Handbook on Opening of Insurance Sector – Policy, Regulations, Guidelines and List of Foreign Companies (2011) 4. H. Narayanan, Indian INSURANCE – A Profile (2008) 5. C. L. Tyagi & Madhu Tyagi, Insurance – Law and Practice (2007) 6. India Brand Equity Foundation http://www. ibef. org/ 7. Investopedia

Friday, November 8, 2019

MIT Sloan Programs and Admissions

MIT Sloan Programs and Admissions When most people think of the Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT), they think about science and technology, but this prestigious university offers education beyond those two fields. MIT has five different schools, including the MIT Sloan School of Management. MIT Sloan School of Management, also known as MIT Sloan, is one of the best-ranked business schools in the world. It is also one of the M7 business schools, an informal network of the most elite business schools in the United States. Students who enroll in MIT Sloan have the opportunity to graduate with a respected degree from a reputable school with brand name awareness. MIT Sloan School of Management is based in Kendall Square in Cambridge, Massachusetts. The presence of the school and the number of entrepreneurial start-ups in the area has led to Kendall Square being known as the most innovative square mile on the planet. MIT Sloan Enrollment and Faculty Approximately 1,300 students are enrolled in undergraduate and graduate programs at MIT Sloan School of Management. Some of these programs result in a degree, while others, such as the executive education programs, result in a certificate. Students, who sometimes refer to themselves as Sloanies, are taught by more than 200 faculty members and lecturers. The MIT Sloan faculty is diverse and includes researchers, policy experts, economists, entrepreneurs, business executives, and practitioners in a wide range of business and management fields.   MIT Sloan Programs for Undergraduate Students Students who are accepted to the undergraduate program at MIT Sloan School of Management can choose from four basic education tracks: 15 Management Science: In this relatively new track of study, students learn how to use quantitative tools and qualitative methods to design and maintain complex systems and solve real-world managerial problems related to logistics and strategy.15:1 Management: This degree program is the most flexible undergraduate program at MIT Sloan. It is designed to give students a broad, foundational education in business and management while allowing them to choose minors and electives that will directly relate to their chosen careers.15:2 Business Analytics: In this undergraduate MIT Sloan program, students learn how to collect, analyze, and optimize data to make informed business decisions.15:3 Finance: In this MIT Sloan program, students study all aspects of finance, including accounting, microeconomics, and statistics. They also have a chance to choose finance-related electives that will help them learn how to apply financial tools to make managerial and strategic investment decisions. Undergraduate Admissions at MIT Sloan Freshman students who want to study at MIT Sloan must submit an application to the Massachusetts Institute of Technology. If accepted, they will choose a major at the end of their freshman year. The school is very selective, admitting less than 10 percent of the people who apply each year. As part of the undergraduate admissions process at MIT, you will be asked to submit biographical information, essays, recommendation letters, high school transcripts, and standardized test scores. Your application will be evaluated by a large group of people based on a number of factors. At least 12 people will look at and consider your application before you receive an acceptance letter.   MIT Sloan Programs for Graduate Students MIT Sloan School of Management offers an MBA program, several masters degree programs, and a PhD program in addition to executive education programs. The MBA program has a first-semester core that requires students to take a select number of classes, but after the first semester, students are given the opportunity to self-manage their education and personalize their curriculum. Personalized track options include entrepreneurship and innovation, enterprise management, and finance. MBA students at MIT Sloan can also choose to earn a joint degree in the Leaders for Global Operations program, which results in an MBA from MIT Sloan and a Master of Science in Engineering from MIT, or a dual degree, which results in an MBA from MIT Sloan and a Masters in Public Affairs or Masters in Public Policy from the Harvard Kennedy School of Government. Mid-career executives who want to earn an MBA in 20 months of part-time study may be well suited to the executive MBA program at MIT Sloan School of Management. Students in this program attend classes every three weeks on Fridays and Saturdays. The program also has a one-week module every six months in addition to a one-week international project trip. Masters degree options include a Master of Finance, Master of Business Analytics, and a Master of Science in Management Studies. Students can also choose to enroll in the System Design and Management program, which results in a Master of Management and Engineering. The Ph.D. program at MIT Sloan School of Management is the most advanced education program. It offers the opportunity conduct research in areas like management science, behavioral and policy sciences, economics, finance, and accounting. MBA Admissions at MIT Sloan You do not need work experience to apply to the MBA program at MIT Sloan School of Management, but you should have a bachelors degree in any area of study, a record of personal achievement, and high academic potential to be considered for the program. Your qualifications can be demonstrated through a range of application components, including standardized test scores, recommendation letters, and academic records. There is no single application component that is the most important- all components are weighed equally. About 25 percent of the students who apply will be invited to interview. Interviews are conducted by members of the admissions committee and are behavioral based. Interviewers assess how well applicants can communicate, influence others, and handle specific situations. MIT Sloan School of Management has round applications, but you can only apply once per year, so it is important to develop a solid application the first time you apply. Admissions for Other Graduate Programs at MIT Sloan The admissions for graduate programs (other than the MBA program) at MIT Sloan vary by program. However, you should plan on submitting undergraduate transcripts, an application, and supporting materials, such as resumes and essays, if you are applying to a degree program. Each degree program has a limited number of seats, which makes the process very selective and competitive. Be sure to research application deadlines and admissions requirements on the MIT Sloan website, and give yourself plenty of time to assemble application materials.

Wednesday, November 6, 2019

Stem Cell essays

Stem Cell essays The discovery, made by Dr. James A. Thomson, a biologist at the University of Wisconsin, Madison, offers great promise for new ways of treating disease. ES cells, which are derived from four-day-old embryos, can theoretically differentiate into virtually any type of human cell, from blood cells to skin cells. Scientists hope to find ways of using these cells to repair damaged tissue. About stem cell transplantation In the bone marrow, there is approximately 1 stem cell in every 100,000 blood cells. The bone marrow in the breast bone, skull, hips, ribs, and spine contains the stem cells. In the blood stream, the number of stem cells is about 1/100 of that in the bone marrow. Transplantation of these stem cells from the blood stream is sometimes used in addition to, or instead of, traditional bone marrow transplantation. The range of diseases for which bone marrow/stem cell transplantation can be considered has increased greatly and includes the The problem that surrounds all this is that Dr. Thomson's breakthrough work was not eligible for funding from NIH, the federal government's primary sponsor of biomedical research, and the sponsor of some of his other research projects. Instead, he set up a separate lab to work on human ES cells supported by private funding from the Geron Corp. of Menlo Park, Calif., and the Wisconsin Alumni Research Foundation. Because of the great potential promised by Dr. Thomson's discovery, NIH sought legal counsel from the Department of Health and Human Services (HHS) on the question of whether or not the ban applies to ES cell research. In January 1999, HHS concluded that public funds could be used for research on ES cells as long as they were not used for the derivation of the cells, the process that results in the destruction of an embryo. NIH thus began drafting guidelines governing funding for ES cell studies. The work was ineligible for public funding...

Monday, November 4, 2019

Manufacturing processes Research Paper Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 1250 words

Manufacturing processes - Research Paper Example The industrial applications of 3-D printing includes rapid prototyping or CAD, design visualization, architecture, geospatial, metal casting, and in entertainment, among others. The application of 3-D printing is objected to reduce the cost and lead time of developing new devices and parts’ prototypes, which was earlier done by subtractive methods in the tool room. The current technology used is typically expensive and slowly to achieve its mission. Moreover, the 3-D printing has brought about production of manufacturing products in some creative and innovative brands that are cheaply produced. ARC is where welding power supply is used to maintain and create an electric arc between the base material and an electrode in order to melt metals at welding platform. It is advantageous since it affords to control greater weld area than other welding processes. It also produces the highest quality weld than other methods, especially when performed by skilled operators. Arc is applied to nearly all materials, except zinc and its alloy. Its disadvantages are the limitation of carbon steels because of availability of more economical steel welding techniques. Such as gas metal. The quality of the welds in this process depends on the skills of the person, hence can be operated by any level-skilled operator. It is advantageous due to its use of efficient energy, easy automation, high production rates, and requires no filler materials. It is limited to only certain applications due to lower weld strength, as compared to other methods. It requires a highly specialized skilled operator. It is disadvantageous since it requires the continuous feed of wire to act as an electrode and inert gas in order to protect the weld from being contaminated. Fortunately, it has advantage of high production rate due to the increased welding speed since it has continuous electrodes. It also requires a highly skilled operator in order to automate the process. This

Friday, November 1, 2019

The use of flexible and distributed learning in higher education Literature review

The use of flexible and distributed learning in higher education (particularly post qualifying nurse education) - Literature review Example Data Sources 20 3.3. Search Terms 22 3.4. Supplementary Literature 22 3.6. Data Synthesis 24 Chapter 4 – Findings 25 4.1. Extent by which flexible and distributed learning is applied for continuing professional development (CPD) in nursing 26 4.2. How flexible and distributed learning is accepted among nurse practitioners as an effective form of learning activity. 30 4.3. Strengths and weaknesses of the new paradigm for the continuing professional development of nurses 34 Chapter 5 – Discussion 41 Chapter 6 – Implications and Recommendations 46 Conclusions 49 References 51 Appendices 60 Abstract Background. Hickie (2004) described the beginnings of the post-registration and education framework (PREP) which was instituted in 1994 to help address the changing needs in health care and protect public interest by regulate post-qualification practice. PREP was implemented by the United Kingdom Central Council for Nursing, Midwifery and Health Visiting (UKCC), which is now known as the Nursing and Midwifery Council. Under the framework, nursing practitioners are required to embark on at least five days or 35 hours of learning activity relevant to current nursing practice during the three-year period preceding the renewal of their registration. Since 2000, renewal of nursing registration certificates for nurses who have not practiced their professions in any capacity for at least 750 hours during the last five years prior to application of renewal specify compulsory return to practice programmes. Additionally, the PREP continuing professional education (CPD) standard also requires nursing practitioners to maintain a personal professional profile (PPP) where all learning activity will be recorded, and compliance with audit requirements of the Nursing and Midwifery Council. Introduction of the portfolio compilation requirement during pre-registration prepares registered nurses for the current nursing practice of keeping a PPP (Hickie, 2004). Flexible and distributed learning offers promising opportunities for continuing professional development of nursing practitioners outside of the rigid context of traditional formats. Aim. The aim of this literature review is to evaluate the efficacy of flexible and distributed learning as an effective new paradigm in the delivery of continuing professional development in nurse education. Methodology. Descriptive analysis in the form of a literature review was adopted as the primary methodology. The review of literature proceeded similar to content analysis of unstructured data which results in summarisation of relevant findings as discussed in Wood and Ross-Kerr (2011). In this paper, findings were analysed and compiled under three main categories: (1) extent by which flexible and distributed learning is applied for continuing professional development in nursing; (2) how flexible and distributed learning is accepted nurse practitioners and the academe as an effective form of learning activi ty; and (3) strengths and weaknesses of the new paradigm for continuing professional development of nurses. Pertinent conclusions were drawn grounded on the findings from the literature review. Method. A search for pertinent resources was undertaken using the following databases (arranged in the order of the initial number of articles retrieved) : CogNet Library, Health Source: Nursing/Academic Edition, Google Scholar, PsycARTICLES, CINAHL, Cochrane Collaboration, General Science Abstracts, Education Resource Information Centre (ERIC), PubMed, Health